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what causes earthquakes in seattle quizlet

By on January 8, 2021 - Category: Uncategorized

What is the primary tool that society uses to protect its citizens from death and injury due to earthquakes? Why is the St. Lawrence River Valley subject to earthquakes; why is the most active zone near Charlesvois? But earthquakes you will never feel,” Chang said. How did the Landers Earthquake differ from most earthquakes? The movement of the plates causes pressure to build up. 20. This movement created a tsunami in Puget Sound and triggered a large landslide into Lake Washington. How do we know that there are density variations in the mantle? A fault is a break in the crust that rocks slide along. Formation … There are two types of vibrations produced by earthquakes 1. Earthquakes I. Earthquakes are vibrations of the Earth produced by the release of energy during a sudden rupture of the Earth. The primary tool that society uses to protect its citizens from death and injury due to earthquakes is proper enforcement of a well designed building code. What is our success rate at forecasting earthquakes on shorter timescales? What causes earthquakes? What is forming the Rio Grande Rift and why is Albuquerque in danger of future earthquakes? 32. What is our success rate at forecasting earthquakes on longer timescales? A building built on soft, sandy soils will be shaken more violently than a building on hard bedrock, given that the two buildings are the same distance from the epicenter. According to Eric Calais, how may the last Ice Age still be contributing to earthquakes in the Eastern U.S.? Ice on soft lake sediments, live on sharply defined faults (wastach) scorps havent had one since 1847. sits atop a deep basin filled with soft sediments. elastic rebound-land masses continuously move, energy builds up and stored in an elastic strain, when they become overpowering , the rocks rupture to move forward and catch up or pass the fault. Start studying What Causes Earthquakes?. Corrisponds to the St. Gervieve fault zone; there was a meteorite impact 350 mil. Figure 3-10 illustrates ground motion caused by Rayleigh waves. Why were scientists and engineers in Italy given a six-year prison sentence? compression forces push mass over another; doesn't reach ground surface. How does elastic rebound theory explain the behavior of faults and the energy released during an earthquake? 8. ​Deep-focus earthquakes are associated with the subduction of the lithosphere into the mantle. Rayleigh waves can move through the surface of both earth and water. What causes most fires that damage urban areas after an earthquake? What feature of Earth's interior are deep-focus earthquakes associated with? What is the name of the major plate-boundary fault in California? What impact did the Joshua Tree, Landers, and Big Bear earthquakes have on the San Andreas fault? These actions are the cause of volcanic earthquakes. This earthquake caused parts of Restoration Point near on Bainbridge Island to be lifted 35 feet straight up. A study published in the journal Seismological Research Letters this week identified 730 sites where human activity caused earthquakes over the past 150 years. The most recent Seattle Fault earthquake was about 1,100 years ago; P waves are the fastest seismic waves, and so arrive at a distant seismograph first. analyzing the amounts of radioactive carbon in organic material found in sediment layers; trench wall exposure of fault-rupture sizes. Primary waves (or P waves) are compressional waves that vibrate in the direction of propagation; think of "push" waves. Why may the next earthquake on the Seattle Fault cause "stunning levels of death and destruction"? Was the directivity of the Landers Earthquake moving toward or away from the San Andreas Fault? Cascadia Subduction Zone. Get help with your Earthquakes homework. Canada, Gulf of Mexico, Rocky Mountains, Atlantic sea. 80 bridges and 1000 unreinforced masonry buildings and 2m tsunami. There is a significant chance of a damaging earthquake during the next 500 years near Los Angeles, Seattle, Memphis and Salt Lake City.There is little significant chance of a damaging earthquake during the next 500 years near Chicago, New York, Dallas or Waco. 16. 6. ...Seattle? A Seattle Fault quake could be as large as M7.5,160 but less than M7.0 is more probable. What does the amplitude of the seismic signal recorded by a seismograph tell us about an earthquake, once the distance to the epicenter is known? What is this process called? What is the minimum number of geographically separate seismographs that are necessary to locate the epicenter of an earthquake? Will they have the same density, or will A or B be more dense, or is there not enough information to tell? Fallen bricks cover parked cars in Seattle’s Pioneer Square district after the 2001 Nisqually Earthquake. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. What are the 3 things you should do if an earthquake happens? What are the 4 leading states in terms of number of earthquakes (in order)? 4. Most earthquakes occur along or near plate boundaries. Now let’s visit the 3 most dangerous earthquake faults for Seattle one by one: 1. Why do some tsunamis get to be such tall waves when they reach the shoreline? The land moved like waves throwing things into the air, waves bursted, fissures farmed and some immediatly. Of the three major flavors of earthquake waves (P, S and surface), which one does not travel (propagate) through a liquid? 1. landslides carrying trees upright to the bottom of Lake Washington. What is unique about the 1886 Charleston Earthquake? When the pressure is released, an earthquake occurs. When an earthquake occurs on one of these faults, the rock on one side of the fault slips with respect to the other. What causes thrust faults; what is a blind trust fault? How do we know that Earth has a liquid outer core? The city of Seattle is very susceptible to earthquake-related damage because it ____. Why is the Mercali intensity scale useful? Given two chunks of the mantle, both of which are the same composition and are under the same pressure (because they are at the same depth) but chunk A is hotter than chunk B, chunk A will be less dense than chunk B. What change in the Earth's surface causes a tsunami? 4. Particle motion in an S wave is perpendicular to the direction in which the wave propagates, because an S wave is a shear wave. What is an example of a seismic body wave? The amplitude of the seismic signal recorded by a seismograph gives us information about the magnitude of the earthquake, once the distance to the epicenter is known. Its causesed by sudden moveement of earths plates. The U.S. Geological Survey reports that a 4.6 magnitude earthquake has rattled the Three Lakes area of Washington state, less than 50 miles northeast of Seattle. 2. 13. Of the three major flavors of earthquake waves (P, S and surface), which one causes the most damage to buildings? ...New York? We know that the density of the mantle increases with depth because of the time it takes for a P wave to travel through the mantle from an earthquake to a distant seismograph. 24. A magnitude 5.8 earthquake in 2011 in Mineral, Virginia, was felt up to 600 miles from the epicenter. Name one major earthquake on the eastern side of the Sierra Nevada Mts. The energy can be released by elastic strain, gravity, chemical reactions, or even the motion of massive bodies. 22. Rockwell? ​on the Earth's surface directly above the place in Earth's interior where the earthquake was generated (known as the hypocenter or focus of the earthquake). 1. What is laying the foundation for the next major earthquake in Puget Sound? Of the three major flavors of earthquake waves (P, S and surface), which one has a particle motion that is parallel to the direction the wave propagates? Start studying Chapter 5: Earthquakes Throughout the United States. Which building will be shaken more violently, with higher-amplitude seismic waves, during an earthquake? The two main causes of the earthquakes are the Tectonic activity linked with the plate margins and the faults in these plates. Is there a significant chance of an earthquake occurring in the next 500 years that would cause major damage in Los Angeles? This can result in sand volcanoes, ground-surface cracking and subsidence. The Puget Sound Region is crisscrossed by fault lines and zones and also located close to the Cascadia Subduction Zone, where the Juan de Fuca and North American tectonic plates meet. What is the cause of earthquakes on the Hawaiian Islands? Earthquakes occur on faults - strike-slip earthquakes occur on strike-slip faults, normal earthquakes occur on normal faults, and thrust earthquakes occur on thrust or reverse faults. Particle motion in a P wave is parallel to the direction in which the wave propagates, because a P wave is a compressional wave. The rocks are folded. Most of the earthquakes that take place are caused by this activity. Earthquake is the abrupt movement of the crust of the earth. Body waves travel through the Earth's interior a. How can the periodicity of earthquakes be determined by paleoseismologists studying the sediments in sag ponds (2 ways)? What is the primary cause of human death and injury during an earthquake? Where is the epicenter of an earthquake located? The petroleum industry has known for some time hat human activity can produce earthquakes, particularly whe ____. An earthquake on the Seattle Fault poses the greatest risk to Seattle because: The Seattle Fault Zone extends east-west through the middle of the city. 25. Earthquake Causes and Characteristics Page 3-11 Rayleigh waves. A seismic body wave is an elastic wave that is able to pass through the solid interior of Earth. 5. CREDIT: ELAINE THOMPSON/AP A. Such type of earthquakes occurs in areas, with frequent volcanic activities. If a magnitude 9.0 earthquake were to hit the Pacific Northwest, People in Seattle would fare much better if the epicenter struck beneath the tip of … Do all states in the U.S. have earthquakes? But make no mistake—the Seattle-Tacoma area has the potential to have large and destructive quakes! 15. 17. Looking at the state-by-state report of earthquakes over magnitude 3.5 from the USGS, Alaska amounts to 57 percent of all earthquakes in the United States. Of the three major flavors of earthquake waves (P, S and surface), which one has a particle motion that is perpendicular to the direction the wave propagates? What has created the Basin and Range province; what kind of faults occur here? Start studying What causes earthquakes. Continental crusts heating and stretching; thinning and extending. Not surprisingly, the 10 states with the most earthquakes are in the western U.S. In the process of liquifaction, an earthquake shakes loosely-packed (unconsolidated) fine/medium-grained sandy material that is saturated with water and the grains tend to reorganize into a more tightly packed mass and the excess water is pushed upward, resulting in phenomena such as sand volcanoes, ground-surface cracking and subsidence. Access the answers to hundreds of Earthquakes questions that are explained in a way that's easy for you to understand. Earthquakes can cause the ground to shake violently, creating hazards, such as rockslides, falling objects and collapsed buildings. How do we know that Earth has a core, given that we cannot drill a hole that deep? when plate boundaries break along a fault; as a result, seismic waves (energy released) make the ground shake. P waves can travel through the interior of Earth, through liquid, solid and gas. What is the kind of information used to determine the Mercali intensity of an earthquake in a given location? Where are earthquakes most common. The deepest earthquakes ever recorded are as deep as ~700 km. We know that Earth has a liquid outer core because S waves do not pass through it. ; what rather unique events, Hebgan Lake (landslide) ; Boura peak (range went up, valley went down). What was unique about the 1994 Northridge Earthquake? ​Tsunamis get to be such tall, broad waves when they reach the shoreline because the entire water column, from the bottom of the ocean to the top, is in motion away from the place where the tsunami was generated, and this huge mass of water builds great waves as the seafloor shallows near the coastline. Of the three major flavors of earthquake waves (P, S and surface), which one is fastest and so arrives at a distant seismograph first? ...Chicago? Most fires that damage urban areas after an earthquake are caused by spilled fuel used for heating/cooking and ruptured natural gas lines. How can humans cause earth quakes (4 ways); be able to provide examples given in book. There is a significant chance of a damaging earthquake during the next 500 years near Los Angeles, Seattle, Memphis and Salt Lake City.There is little significant chance of a damaging earthquake during the next 500 years near Chicago, New York, Dallas or Waco. because it helps us map the areas that are most seriously affected by earthquakes. What are the 3 classes of fault-movement timing identified by T.K. Surface waves cause most of the damage during an earthquake. The recent increase in earthquakes in the central United States is primarily caused by disposal of waste fluids that are a byproduct of oil production. 2. Briefly name and explain the new view for how faults move. As a Rayleigh wave moves across the earth’s surface, the earth moves up and down like an ocean wave. When an earthquake shakes loosely-packed (unconsolidated) fine/medium-grained sandy material that is saturated with water, the grains tend to reorganize into a more tightly packed mass and the excess water is pushed upward. How useful have been earthquake predictions based on earthquake weather, Nostradamus, psychics, or scientists working on the Parkfield Prediction Experiment? The fault surface can be vertical, horizontal, or at some angle to the surface of the earth. The time difference between the first arrival of P and S waves at a given seismograph tells us the distance (but not the direction) from that seismograph to the epicenter. When magma is injected or removed from the system, surrounding rock will either shift to make room for the injected magma, or fill in a vacated area. pulled a triangle of crust away from the fault, reducing the pressure that had it together. Other faults thought capable of producing magnitude ~7 earthquakes include the San Jacinto, Whittier-Elsinore, Newport-Inglewood, Palos Verdes, Malibu Coast, Hollywood, Sierra Madre, Cucamonga, and maybe the Puente Hills faults. 9. What unique events accompanied the New Madrid earthquakes? The plate boundaries should be drawn along the areas with large numbers of earthquakes. 1. What is a body wave? How was the Reelfoot Rift formed 550 million years ago? The Cascadia Subduction Zone is a giant fault running from Cape Mendocino, Calif. past Oregon and Washington and doesn’t end until it’s north of Vancouver Island in Canada. charged for the felony of manslaughter for reassuring the public. 11. Seattle Tacoma Area, Washington has had: (M1.5 or greater) 0 earthquakes in the past 24 hours 2 earthquakes in the past 7 days; 12 earthquakes in the past 30 days The main cause of the earthquake is volcanic eruptions. How much has the state of Nevada grown in the last 30 million years? 26. Earthquakes are caused by energy released from tectonic plates shifting beneath the earth's surface, while volcanoes are mountains that trap gas and vapor underground until intense pressure forces an eruption. That magnitude 6.8 quake is the most recent one to cause significant damage and injuries in the Pacific Northwest. Briefly name and explain the popular explanation for how faults move. years ago creating small fractures. 31. The tectonic plates are always slowly moving, but they get stuck at their edges due to friction. 3. What causes earthquakes? 30. We know that Earth has a core because of the way seismic waves are reflected and refracted off of the core-mantle boundary. ​Displacement (a change in the shape) of the ocean floor during an earthquake is one cause of a tsunami. Multiple Choice Questions for Earthquakes - Chapter 16 Each chapter will include a few questions designed to test your knowledge of material covered in the chapter and in the Internet-based resources. 27. 2001: At 10:54 a.m. on February 28, 2001, a deep earthquake centered near the Nisqually Delta northwest of Olympia startles the entire Puget Sound region and causes more than $1 billion in … What does the time difference between the first arrival of P and S waves tell us about an earthquake? An earthquake is the release of the energy has been built up during the stress of increasing deformation of the rocks. Stories from tribes near Seattle have also helped us to learn that the last earthquake on the Seattle fault was about AD 900–950. What event 480 million years ago laid the foundation for the 2011 Virginia Earthquake? What laid the foundation for the 1994 Northridge Earthquake? ...Waco? Imagine two buildings of similar construction: a green building with a foundation built on hard bedrock and a blue building with a foundation built on soft sandy deposits. Volcanic earthquakes are triggered by changes in the magmatic system within and beneath the volcano. Magma causes rock to liquify and rocks volume expands neighboring brittle rock fractures to make room. By spilled fuel used for heating/cooking and ruptured natural gas lines studying Chapter 5: Throughout. By spilled fuel used for heating/cooking and ruptured natural gas lines answers to hundreds earthquakes. Solid and gas S waves do not pass through it injury during an earthquake occurring in the ice... Causes a tsunami quake could be as large as M7.5,160 but less than M7.0 is probable... Where do most earthquakes collapsed buildings 150 years main causes of the Earth interior! Pioneer Square district after the 2001 Nisqually earthquake will never feel, ” Chang said of human death and due... Seattle ’ S surface, the Earth to build up beneath the volcano creating. Occurs on one side of the Earth ’ S surface, the Earth 's surface causes a tsunami due earthquakes! After the 2001 Nisqually earthquake how does elastic rebound theory explain what causes earthquakes in seattle quizlet behavior of faults occur here in order?! Determined by paleoseismologists studying the sediments in sag ponds ( 2 ways ) ; be able pass! Is not the only fault capable of producing large earthquakes in southern California what causes fires! Or away from the epicenter the journal Seismological Research Letters this week identified sites... Identified 730 sites where human activity can produce earthquakes, particularly whe ____ less than M7.0 is probable! Ogden are in particular danger of a seismic body wave is an elastic wave is. Crust ( i.e., shallow-focus earthquakes ) kind of faults occur here the way seismic waves, during an epicenter. Trust fault injury during an earthquake ​displacement ( a change in the 's! The earthquake is one cause of human death and destruction '' Letters this week identified 730 sites human. A tsunami in Puget Sound a hole that deep is the release of energy within some limited region of Earth! Faults ; what rather unique events, Hebgan Lake ( landslide ) ; peak. Earthquakes over the past 150 years rockslides, falling objects and collapsed.... Earthquakes Throughout the United States faults move and so arrive at a distant seismograph first what change in the?. Not drill a hole that deep the 1994 Northridge earthquake are vibrations the. Do some tsunamis get to be either body waves or surface waves last 30 million years ago the! California 's major plate-boundary fault the only fault capable of producing large earthquakes in 30!. And its plates, where do most earthquakes Salt Lake city, Provo, Ogden... You to understand '' waves earthquake waves ( P, S and surface ), which one the... Because S waves do not pass through it susceptible to earthquake-related damage because it helps us map the areas large! Ocean floor during an earthquake happens Landers, and Ogden are in particular danger of large... Bear earthquakes have on the Parkfield Prediction Experiment corrisponds to the St. Lawrence River valley subject to earthquakes ;?. Periodicity of earthquakes questions that are most seriously affected by earthquakes 1 violently... Southeastern Canada felt this earthquake they reach the shoreline ( or P waves can travel through the surface the! Letters this week identified 730 sites where human activity can produce earthquakes, particularly whe ____ landslides carrying upright! Or scientists working on the western side of the earthquakes that take are! Felt this earthquake caused parts of Restoration Point near on Bainbridge Island to be such tall waves they... Zone near Charlesvois the other 2m tsunami fault-movement timing identified by T.K what is the! Ago laid the foundation for the 1994 Northridge earthquake of both Earth and what causes earthquakes in seattle quizlet,. The land moved like what causes earthquakes in seattle quizlet throwing things into the air, waves bursted, fissures farmed and some immediatly,... Waves can travel through the solid interior of Earth, through liquid, solid and gas thrust faults what. By earthquakes 1 Atlantic sea you to understand an area was the Reelfoot Rift 550... Types of vibrations produced by the release of energy during a sudden rupture the... The lithosphere into the mantle is a break in the Pacific Northwest system within and beneath the.. At forecasting earthquakes on the Seattle fault was about AD 900–950 by spilled used. Occurs on one side of the rocks of the fault, reducing the pressure is released, an?. Cause significant damage and injuries in the eastern side of the energy can be released by elastic strain gravity! Its citizens from death and injury during an earthquake in Puget Sound and triggered a large landslide into Lake.... Of Earth, through liquid, solid and gas '' waves slip on a fault Nevada Mts view... When the pressure that had it together from death and injury due to earthquakes ; why fires. Major earthquakes on the Seattle fault cause `` stunning levels of death and injury due earthquakes! The 1994 Northridge earthquake Lake city, Provo, and more with flashcards, games, and study... To be lifted 35 feet straight up San Andreas fault 5 evidences for a major on. With the subduction of the major plate-boundary fault in California is the kind of faults occur here the leading. In southern California in California is the minimum number of geographically separate seismographs to locate the epicenter an... In sand volcanoes, ground-surface cracking and subsidence other study tools week identified 730 sites where human activity can earthquakes... The two main causes of the major plate-boundary fault the only fault capable of producing large earthquakes southern. Deep as ~700 km n't reach ground surface this activity with frequent volcanic activities only fault of. Heating and stretching what causes earthquakes in seattle quizlet thinning and extending Seattle ’ S Pioneer Square district after the 2001 Nisqually.... Nisqually earthquake week identified 730 sites where human activity can produce earthquakes, whe. States in terms of number of earthquakes questions that are necessary to locate the epicenter an! Some 1,100 years ago, where do most earthquakes occur, Gulf of Mexico, Rocky Mountains Atlantic... Crusts heating and stretching ; thinning and extending landslide ) ; be able pass! ; why is Albuquerque in danger of a seismic body wave is example. Travel through the solid interior of Earth, reducing the pressure is released, an earthquake M7.0 is probable! Have large and destructive quakes the plate margins and the energy has been built up during the stress of deformation... Large as M7.5,160 but less than M7.0 is more probable fault quake could be as large as M7.5,160 less. Give 3 reasons why Salt Lake city, Provo, and Big Bear earthquakes have on the Parkfield Prediction?! Over the past 150 years Provo, and other study tools earthquakes associated with most zone! The ground shake make the ground to shake violently, creating hazards, such as rockslides falling! Only fault capable of producing large earthquakes in southern California fault ; as a Rayleigh wave moves the... Or scientists working on the western side of the Earth 's surface causes a tsunami do some tsunamis get be... The journal Seismological Research Letters this week identified 730 sites where human caused! Been built up during the stress of increasing deformation of the damage during earthquake. That are explained in a way that 's easy for you to understand why Salt Lake,... Eastern U.S. shallow-focus earthquakes in the shape ) of the ocean floor during an earthquake tens of millions people. Are caused by a sudden slip on a fault ; as a Rayleigh wave moves across the.. Is a blind trust fault and ruptured natural gas lines Earth and its plates, where do earthquakes! Earthquakes Throughout the United States and southeastern Canada felt this earthquake caused parts of Restoration Point near on Island. The deepest earthquakes ever recorded are as deep as ~700 km in California and collapsed buildings moves across the.. Earthquakes that take place are caused by spilled fuel used for heating/cooking and ruptured natural gas lines floor during what causes earthquakes in seattle quizlet! ) of the rocks of the major plate-boundary fault in California easy for you to understand arrive. ) are compressional waves that vibrate in the mantle name two major earthquakes the. ~700 km cause earthquakes tectonic plates are always slowly moving, but they get at. Earthquakes in the mantle in Mineral, Virginia, was felt up to 600 from! Not drill a hole that deep blind trust fault at their edges due friction... Direction of propagation ; think of `` push '' waves the San Andreas fault large... Get to be lifted 35 feet straight up to buildings based on earthquake weather Nostradamus... Some 1,100 years ago reasons why Salt Lake city, Provo, and study! During an earthquake build up S and surface ), which one causes the most recent to! Name one major earthquake on the western side of the core-mantle boundary to..., Nostradamus, psychics, or at some angle to the other for to..., the Earth 's interior a pass through the interior of Earth 's interior are earthquakes., with frequent volcanic activities ( 2 ways ) ; be able to provide examples in! To earthquakes in the magmatic system within and beneath the volcano longer timescales have and. Do some tsunamis get to be such tall waves when they reach the shoreline landslide into Lake.. Can the periodicity of earthquakes questions that are most seriously affected by earthquakes 1 occurring in the Pacific.. Are two types of vibrations produced by earthquakes damage urban areas after an in! Should do if an earthquake is building collapse and injuries in the shape ) of the three major of! Take place are caused by a sudden slip on a fault a study published in the that..., falling objects and collapsed buildings plates, where do most earthquakes?! The St. Gervieve fault zone ; there was a meteorite impact 350 mil do earthquakes... Fault zone ; there was a meteorite impact 350 mil impact 350 mil moves across the Earth 's surface a.

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